By Günther Ludwig
Written within the culture of G. Ludwig’s groundbreaking works, this e-book goals to elucidate and formulate extra exactly the basic principles of actual theories. by way of introducing a easy descriptive language of easy shape, within which it truly is attainable to formulate recorded evidence, ambiguities of actual theories are kept away from up to attainable. during this procedure the sector of physics that are meant to be defined by means of a thought depends on easy suggestions purely, i.e. options that may be defined with no theory.
In this context the authors introduce a brand new proposal of idealization and overview the method of learning new suggestions. they suspect that, whilst the theories are formulated inside of an axiomatic foundation, suggestions are available to many tough difficulties reminiscent of the translation of actual theories, the family among theories in addition to the advent of actual concepts.
The booklet addresses either physicists and philosophers of technological know-how and may inspire the reader to give a contribution to the certainty of the lasting middle of actual wisdom in regards to the actual buildings of the world.
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Extra resources for A new foundation of physical theories
An He-atom with two electrons, we cannot mark one electron by ‘a’ and the other by ‘b’, since the hypothesis that we can distinguish the a-electron from the b-electron is in contradiction to quantum mechanics. However, if we make a collision experiment between an electron and an H-atom it would be a contradiction to quantum mechanics to say that the electron leaving the collision is the same (or is not the same) as the incident electron. The electron leaving the collision is neither the incident electron nor that which was in the H-atom.
By the position α1 as the ﬁrst and the position α2 as the second in r it will be ﬁxed that α1 is the pressure and α2 is the volume. , M = IR × IR × IR for the measurements of the orthogonal coordinates of the position of an object. The set M must be deﬁned by the pre-theories as a set with a uniform structure (see Sect. 6) by the elements of which can be described the errors of measurement. 46 3 From Reality to Mathematics In order to simplify our description, we will symbolize the results of measurement only by IR and intervals J for the description of the errors of measurement.
Designation reference & representation denotation - objects - facts - Reality level Fig. 1. Semantic relations One can understand that linguistic entities designate conceptual entities. But how we get relations between conceptual entities and real entities is a very complicated process: We will not describe the process of obtaining relations by “immediate reference;” we can only say which of these concepts are used, but 40 3 From Reality to Mathematics how we get such concepts is a psychological process which we cannot avoid by introducing philosophical a priori concepts.
A new foundation of physical theories by Günther Ludwig