By V.K Jain
Non traditional production methods, Non conventional production strategies
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Extra resources for Advanced Machining Processes
Tooling, Vol. 48(9), pp. 33-35. A. (1988), Advanced Methods o f Machining, Chapman & Hall, London. E. (1957), Special Theory of Ultrasonic Machining, J. Appl. , Vol. 28(2), p. 149. A. D. (1956-57), Ultrasonic Machining, Philips Technical Review, Vol. 18, pp. 325, 368. C. S. (1980), M odem Machining Processes, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi. C. (1956), Ultrasonic Grinding, Microtecnic, Vol. 10, p. 257. Soundararajan V. and Radhakrishnan V. (1986), An Experimental Investiga tion on Basic Mechanism Involved in Ultrasonic Machining, Int J.
In USM, the throw- 28 ing force is contributed by the tool oscillating at ultrasonic frequency. The par ticles are of different sizes and they are thrown many times per second. In some cases, they are hammered also through the slurry. Fig. 2 shows a schematic diagram of USM system. Fig. 1 The word ultrasonic describes a vibratory wave having frequency larger than upper frequency limit of human ear (usually greater than 16 kc/s). Waves are usually classified as shear waves and longitudinal waves.
2 ) M a+C ’ where, Ma is the abrasive mass flow rate, and Ma+C is abrasive and carrier gas 15 (a) (d) Cb) (« ) \ Fig. 4 mm (f) Photograph of the actual machined cavity profile at different stand-off-distance (a) 2 mm, (b) 6 mm, (c) 10 mm, (d) 14 mm, (e) 16 mm, (f) 20 mm. 15 kN /nr (gauge), and cutting time = 60 s [ Verma and Lai, 1984]. 16 combined mass flow rate. Verma and Lai [1984, 1985] have studied its effect on optimum volumetric material removal rate. 3) where, C and n are constants, a is minimum flow stress of work material, v is velocity of impacting particles, and 0 is impingement angle.
Advanced Machining Processes by V.K Jain